Adriana Torres-Machorro,
Departamento de Cirugía, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Ciudad de México, México
Christopher Ruben-Castillo,
Deparment of Surgery, Surgery and Endovascular Terapy Section, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición ”Salvador Zubirán”, Mexico City, Mexico
Esteban Ortega-Hernández,
Centre of Microvascular Research, The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
Ramses Galaz-Mendez,
Departamento de Biomédica, GS Biomedical, Hermosillo, Sonora, México
Paola Ulacia-Fores,
Departamento de Biomédica, GS Biomedical, Hermosillo, Sonora, México; Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Sabsil Lopez-Rocha,
Servicio de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular, Departamento de Cirugía, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México
Paula Leal-Anaya,
Servicio de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular, Departamento de Cirugía, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México
Carlos A. Hinojosa,
Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico


Nowadays, surgical planning is recognized as one of the most useful applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing. It has been demonstrated that 3D models may assist to overcome the surgical challenges of complex vascular anatomy and improve the endovascular skills required in certain procedures. Therefore, reproducing a patient based anatomical 3D model act as a tool for individualized preoperative planning and decision making with a direct positive impact in the clinical outcomes. Another interesting field concerning vascular surgery and bioprinting, is the possibility of developing a variety of prosthetic devices for treating vascular disease. The main objective is to overcome biocompatibility disadvantages of prosthesis made from synthetic fabrics among other shortcomings. These may include, long manufacturing times and the high costs of an individualized prosthetic device, challenges faced when an autologous vein is not available. Unfortunately, cases requiring this sophisticated management are usually faced in the context of emergency care with a limited number of therapeutic options and a high mortality rate. Understanding the complexity of vessels biology; such as the interactions between each layer of the vessel wall, is extremely important for making a 3D-printed vessel which could, in the close future, simulate a real human vessel. Achieving this would mean more availability and in consequence, cost reduction for treating complex vascular disease. These benefits would be reflected not only in lowering medical and hospital expenses, but also in the morbidity and mortality related to the surgical procedure.



Keywords: 3D vascular models. 3D vessel bioprinting. Biocompatibility. Vascular prosthetic device.