Jorge Ulloa,
Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia
Valentina Sierra,
Medical School, Universidad de los Andes. Bogotá, Colombia
Nicolás Suárez-Cañón,
Medical School, Universidad de los Andes. Bogotá, Colombia
Diego Rincón,
Medical School, Universidad de los Andes. Bogotá, Colombia
José Ordoñez,
2Medical School, Universidad de los Andes. Bogotá, Colombia
Oscar Moreno,
Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia


Background: The golden ratio (GR), also known as phi (φ: 1.618), is a harmonic ratio found throughout nature. Objective: We seek to correlate the GR with the venous diameters of the deep venous system of the lower extremity (LE). Material and methods: We performed a case series study with a sample of 43 healthy volunteers, between September and December 2020, comparing the diameters of the common femoral vein (CFV) 5-10 cm distal to the inguinal ligament and the popliteal vein (POPV) using the formula (CFV/CFV + VPOP). Results: The mean of the calculations for the right LE was 0.61 cm (99% CI: 0.59-0.62) and for the left LE was 0.59 cm (99% CI: 0.57-0.60). Conclusions: Venous diameter ratios were descriptively close to 1/φ. This is the first study on the role of phi in the venous circulation. Its application could contribute to real-life use in the field of innovation in vascular surgery.



Keywords: Case series. Ultrasonography. Venous insufficiency. Anatomic landmarks. Lower extremity. Golden ratio.